vor 1 Stunde Der saudi-arabische Botschafter in den USA, Chalid bin Salman, hat Meldungen über den Tod oder die Verhaftung des Journalisten Dschamal. Kinder in Saudi-Arabien. Die Umsetzung der Kinderrechte in Saudi-Arabien. Saudi-Arabien, der global führende Ölproduzent, ist eines der reichsten Länder der. Saudi-Arabien auf DER STANDARD International. Wir geben weiterführende Informationen zur Politik der absolutistischen Monarchie in Vorderasien. The watershed of the peninsula is only 25 miles 40 km from the Red Sea in the north and recedes to 80 miles km near the Yemen border. Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdul Aziz. The previous plan called for slashing unemployment to 2. Red Sea coral and marine fish. InRamadan is expected paypal konto wiederherstellen begin on or around May 5. Articles with missing files Articles containing Arabic-language text Pages with login required references or sources Webarchive clash of queens game wayback links CS1 maint: Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 10 September The Middle East reader. Arab dynasties, originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia, Hejaz in particular, founded the Rashidun —Umayyad —Abbasid — and the Fatimid — caliphates. In its religious freedom report, the U. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated how to win online casino games. Leave your passport in a safe place and carry a photocopy for Beste Spielothek in Gottfriedingerschwaige finden purposes. Unter der wachsenden Rolle von Internet, sozialen Medien und Satellitenfernsehen hat sich die Jugendkultur Saudi-Arabiens stark verändert. Ein Liter Super kostet nun umgerechnet 45 Euro-Cent - mehr als doppelt italien em 2019 spieler viel wie zuvor. August im Webarchiv archive. Das Land ist in 13 Provinzen Singular: Dezemberinternationale Ausgabe, S. Die Ehe wird nicht als Sakrament verstanden, sondern als ziviler Vertrag. Saudi-Arabien wirkt in arabischer Welt destabilisierend. Nun erlaubt Saudi-Arabien die Durchsuchung des Konsulats. Nach einer Scheidung muss die Frau mindestens vier Monate warten, um erneut zu heiraten. Das kontinentale Klima Thrills Casino - EVГ„STEIDEN KГ„YTTГ– Landesinneren weist zum Teil beträchtliche Temperaturunterschiede auf, audi arabien allem zwischen Tag und Nacht. Kairoer Erklärung der Menschenrechte im Islam.
There are virtually no permanent surface streams in the country, but wadis are numerous. Soils are poorly developed. Large areas are covered with pebbles of varying sizes.
Alluvial deposits are found in wadis, basins, and oases. Salt flats are especially common in the east. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.
Nov 3, See Article History. Page 1 of Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The International Monetary Fund.
The IMF also borrows to supplement its quota resources. Yemen, on the coast of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, borders the desert to the southwest.
Oman, bulging out into the Gulf of Oman, lies at the eastern edge of the desert. The sheikhdoms of the United Arab Emirates and…. Islamic fundamentalism monarchy In monarchy: Monarchy in the modern era population and demography In Saudi Arabia: Developments in the 20th century View More.
Retrieved 3 January Middle East Brief State, power and politics in the making of the modern Middle East. Archived from the original on 16 June Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 1 February Conflict and cooperation in the Persian Gulf region.
The New York Times. Middle Eastern leaders and Islam: Archived from the original on 10 October Abir , p. Security issues in the post-cold war world.
Saudi Arabia and its royal family. The Middle East reader. September 11 and the U. Freedom in the Middle East and North Africa: A Freedom in the World Special Edition.
National Security in Saudi Arabia: Threats, Responses, and Challenges. At a snail's pace". Religion and the State.
War on sacred grounds. Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States. International Journal of Middle East Studies.
Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Law of God versus law of man; Saudi Arabia". Cruel, or just unusual? The king of Saudi Arabia shows some reformist credentials".
Saudi Arabia A Country Study. Miethe; Hong Lu Saudi girl accepts lashing for assaulting headmistress". Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 September Doing business with Saudi Arabia.
David Cameron to write to Saudi government". Raise Religious Freedom on Saudi Trip". The Plight of Foreign Migrant Workers".
Beatrice Thomas 10 November "Saudi services suffer under visa clampdown". Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original PDF on 24 April Everything points to Saudis being responsible for missing journalist".
Retrieved 12 Pctpber Retrieved 12 October Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original on 21 January Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Retrieved 20 May Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad. US 'could be implicated in war crimes ' ". A History of Saudi Arabia.
Great powers and regional orders: Retrieved 8 October Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Archived from the original on 3 January Politics in the developing world.
South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 27 November Saudi Arabia and Gulf react with caution".
Saudis brace for 'nightmare' of U. Retrieved 9 June Saudi and Qatar at war against Iraq". Gareth Porter 28 May Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original on 27 September Saudis face growing criticism over deaths".
Retrieved 12 March Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present. What business is at stake? Clash Over Khashoggi Case". Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 31 October The Islamic Quest for Nuclear Weapons.
Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 11 November Archived from the original on 5 December A history by Charles Gardner.
The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 22 October The sciences and engineering.
Cat News Special Issue 1: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Fishes of the red sea. High Commission for the Development of Ar-Riyadh.
Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 5 February Archived from the original on 1 April Saudi citizens account for two-thirds of employment in the high-paying, comfortable public sector, but only one-fifth of employment in the more dynamic private sector, according to the International Monetary Fund PDF.
Angus McDowall 19 January Archived from the original PDF on 26 February Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 16 March Archived from the original on 22 November Twilight in the Desert: The foreign workforce grows, and so does unemployment among Saudis.
The previous plan called for slashing unemployment to 2. Government plans in Saudi are like those in the old Soviet Union, grandiose but unmet.
The Metropolitan Corporate Counsel. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 7 December Poverty in Saudi Arabia English Version".
Roy Gutman 4 December Amelia Hill 23 October Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 16 September Wish you were here , economist.
Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 7 May Archived from the original PDF on 15 November The Hijaz is the largest, most populated, and most culturally and religiously diverse region of Saudi Arabia, in large part because it was the traditional host area of all the pilgrims to Mecca, many of whom settled and intermarried there.
Caryle Murphy 7 February A History of Modern Africa: John Wiley and Sons. Retrieved 15 March Countries with More Than , Shia Muslims".
Approximate Percentage of Muslim Population that is Shia Council on Foreign Relations. Small but potentially powerful Shiite are found throughout the Gulf States What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam: Retrieved 22 May Encyclopedia of religious freedom.
Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 6 November Abdul Ghafour 21 October Archived from the original on 8 November The Straight Path 3rd ed.
A Guide for Jews and Christians. The Meeting of Two Worlds: Central Conference of American Rabbis. Archived from the original PDF on 28 July Interfaith Aesthetics in Buddhist and Muslim Communities.
Wipf and Stock Publishers. US Department of State. Retrieved 22 September Saudi princes throw parties boasting drink, drugs and sex World news.
The Guardian 7 December Retrieved on 9 May Tripp, Culture Shock , Bahrain changes the weekend in efficiency drive , The Times , 2 August Retrieved 25 June Turkey has a weekend on Saturday and Sunday Prior to 29 June , the weekend was Thursday-Friday, but was shifted to better serve the Saudi economy and its international commitments.
A welcome change", SaudiGazette. Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 28 October The New York Review of Books. Almost half of Saudi state television's airtime is devoted to religious issues, as is about half the material taught in state schools" source: By the estimate of an elementary schoolteacher in Riyadh, Islamic studies make up 30 percent of the actual curriculum.
But another 20 percent creeps into textbooks on history, science, Arabic, and so forth. In contrast, by one unofficial count the entire syllabus for twelve years of Saudi schooling contains a total of just thirty-eight pages covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world.
Nine out of ten titles published in the kingdom are on religious subjects, and most of the doctorates its universities awards are in Islamic studies.
Secularist are simply not to be found. International Religious Freedom Report ". Retrieved 23 February Human Rights Watch A Comparative Study, p 93 Daniel E.
Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 4 June The State as an Actor in Religion Policy: Policy Cycle and Governance. Retrieved 19 March Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage' , The Independent , 6 August Retrieved 17 January Other historic buildings that have been destroyed include the house of Khadijah , the wife of Muhammad, the house of Abu Bakr , now the site of the local Hilton hotel ; the house of Ali-Oraid, the grandson of Muhammad, and the Mosque of abu-Qubais, now the location of the King's palace in Mecca.
Retrieved 24 September Archived from the original on 18 October Archived from the original on 28 October Archived from the original on 20 January Todor Krastev 21 September Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 28 June No women on Asian Games Team".
Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original PDF on 8 November Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 1 May Asharq Alawsat, 13 January Retrieved 18 October Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism.
Comparative Criminal Justice Systems. Retrieved 28 April Media in the Service of King Abdullah". Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 30 March Archived from the original on 28 December Archived from the original on 9 February Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 8 March Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.
Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House. Archived from the original PDF on 1 October World Education News and Reviews. Saudi Ministry of Education Official Website.
Saudi Ministry of Education. Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Retrieved 23 September Keeps Saudi Arabia's Worst Secret".
Retrieved 25 August Saudi Arabia in the oil era: Government, Society, and the Persian Gulf Crisis. The History of Saudi Arabia. Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism Since House, Karen Elliott 18 September Culture and Customs of Saudi Arabia.
Focus on Islamic issues. Otto, Jan Michiel Tripp, Harvey; North, Peter A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette.
Saudi Arabia 3rd ed. Culture Shock, Saudi Arabia. A Guide to Customs and Etiquette. Times Media Private Limited. Find more about Saudi Arabia at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Anthem Emblem Flag Motto. Articles related to Saudi Arabia. Countries and dependencies of Asia. Dependencies and special administrative regions.
Christmas Island Cocos Keeling Islands. Book Category Asia portal. Countries and regions in the Arabian Plate. Countries bordering the Persian Gulf.
Countries bordering the Red Sea. Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean. Arab League Lists Portal Arab world. Brazil Eritrea India Turkey Venezuela.
Kitts and Nevis St. Moro National Liberation Front. List of current sovereign monarchs List of current constituent monarchs. Retrieved from " https: Articles with missing files Articles containing Arabic-language text Pages with login required references or sources Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: Unfit url All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September Articles with permanently dead external links CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history.
Unitary Islamic totalitarian   absolute monarchy. Mohammad bin Salman Crown Prince. Outline Index Book Category Portal.
You may be at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases while travelling in this country. Talk to your travel health professional about which ones are right for you.
All those travelling to regions with a risk of hepatitis A infection should get vaccinated. Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver spread through blood or other bodily fluids.
Travellers who may be exposed e. Seasonal influenza occurs worldwide. The flu season usually runs from November to April in the northern hemisphere, between April and October in the southern hemisphere and year round in the tropics.
Influenza flu is caused by a virus spread from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus.
Get the flu shot. Vaccination against four strains of bacteria that cause meningococcal disease is required to enter Saudi Arabia to participate in the Hajj and Umrah.
Proof of polio vaccination is required to participate in the Hajj and Umrah if entering Saudi Arabia from certain countries.
Discuss this with your health care profesional to see if it applies to you. Yellow fever is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.
Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.
Travellers to any destination in the world can develop travellers' diarrhea from consuming contaminated water or food.
In some areas in Western Asia, food and water can also carry diseases like cholera , hepatitis A , schistosomiasis and typhoid.
Practise safe food and water precautions while travelling in Western Asia. Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it! Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water.
Travellers visiting regions with a risk typhoid, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation should speak to a health care professional about vaccination.
Travellers are advised to take precautions against bites. There is currently a risk of chikungunya in this country. Chikungunya can cause a viral disease that typically causes fever and pain in the joints.
In some cases, the joint pain can be severe and last for months or years. Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times. There is no vaccine available for chikungunya.
Zika virus infection is a risk in this country. The mosquito that spreads the virus is found here. All travellers should protect themselves from mosquito bites and other diseases spread by insects.
Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats.
Certain infections found in some areas in Western Asia, like avian influenza and rabies , can be shared between humans and animals.
Crowded conditions can increase your risk of certain illnesses. Remember to wash your hands often and practice proper cough and sneeze etiquette to avoid colds, the flu and other illnesses.
Modern medical care is available in large cities. Adequate medical services are available in smaller cities. Immediate cash payment may be required.
You should purchase the best travel insurance you can afford prior to your departure. Your health insurance should include health, life and disability coverage that will help you pay for large expenses, such as the cost of hospitalization or medical treatment outside of Canada.
See Travel insurance for more information. The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.
Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a travel health kit , especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.
Learn about what you should do and how we can help if you are arrested or detained abroad. If you are involved in an accident, do not disturb the scene until the traffic patrol arrives, do not make any financial arrangement with the other drivers and immediately contact your visa sponsor and the Canadian embassy in Riyadh or the Consulate of Canada in Jeddah.
In a traffic accident resulting in personal injury, regardless of fault, drivers may be held for several days until responsibility is determined and restitution is made.
Some Saudi cities have implemented an automated traffic ticketing system. All fines issued through this system must be paid before leaving the country.
Payment can be made at the airport during regular Saudi office hours. Criticizing the royal family and Islam are illegal. Religious proselytizing is also not permitted.
Common-law relationships, adultery and prostitution are illegal and are subject to severe punishment, including the death penalty.
Penalties for the import, manufacture, possession and consumption of alcohol, pork, illegal drugs or products containing their ingredients are severe.
Saudi authorities practise zero tolerance and make no distinction between alcohol and soft or hard drugs. Drug offenders may be sentenced to corporeal punishment or death.
It is forbidden to photograph official buildings e. Seek permission prior to photographing individuals. The laws of Saud Arabia prohibit sexual acts between individuals of the same sex.
Those convicted may face the death penalty. See Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and two-spirit Canadians abroad for more information. Dress conservatively, behave discreetly and respect religious and social traditions in order to avoid offending local sensitivities, especially in holy cities Mecca and Medina and mosques.
Women should observe the strict Saudi dress code and wear conservative and loose-fitting clothes, including a full-length cloak abaya and a head scarf.
Men should not wear shorts in public or go without a shirt. Seek guidance concerning acceptable clothing before your arrival.
Women are not allowed to associate with men in public unless the women are accompanied by other family members. A woman can be charged with prostitution if she is found associating with a man who is not a relative.
Restaurants have two sections: During the lunar month of Ramadan the ninth month of the Muslim calendar , refrain from drinking, eating, and smoking in public between sunrise and sunset.
In , Ramadan is expected to begin on or around May 5. The Mutawa, also known as the religious police, have harassed, pursued and assaulted foreigners they believe disregard strict Saudi standards of conduct and dress.
Often, they will simply instruct women to cover their hair. The Mutawa carry special identification and are typically accompanied by a uniformed police officer.
If you are stopped by the Mutawa, cooperate and ask them for their credentials. Offer to accompany them to the nearest police station.
Do not hand over identification documents. Inform your sponsors if the police retain your documents. If local authorities consider you a citizen of Saudi Arabia, they may refuse to grant you access to Canadian consular services.
The king introduced a number of economic reforms aimed at reducing the country's reliance on oil revenue: In February , Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary, armed forces, and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween religious police with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister.
On 29 January , hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing eleven people.
Since , Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September ,   Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the municipal elections , and also to be nominated to the Shura Council.
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. In the absence of national elections and political parties,  politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis.
Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events.
The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority —particularly in the Eastern Province ; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents for example in the Hejaz.
The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions  and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation.
The royal family dominates the political system. The family's vast numbers allow it to control most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government.
Long term political and government appointments have resulted in the creation of "power fiefdoms" for senior princes,  such as those of King Abdullah, who had been Commander of the National Guard since until , when he appointed his son to replace him ,  former Crown Prince Sultan , Minister of Defence and Aviation from to his death in , former crown prince Prince Nayef who was the Minister of Interior from to his death in , Prince Saud who had been Minister of Foreign Affairs since  and current King Salman , who was Minister of Defense and Aviation before he was crown prince and Governor of the Riyadh Province from to The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences.
There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption.
However, nepotism and patronage are widespread when doing business in the country. The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity.
A number of prominent Saudi Arabian princes, government ministers, and businesspeople, including Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal , were arrested in Saudi Arabia in November There has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule, an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in The creation of the Consultative Council in the early s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in , an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters.
In , the first municipal elections were held. In , the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession. Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema the body of Islamic religious leaders and jurists a direct role in government.
The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in By the s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline.
The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh ,  the country's leading religious family. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority  thereby using its religious- moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule.
The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah the traditions of the Prophet.
Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence or fiqh found in pre-modern texts  and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qur'an and hadith.
Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments either his own or of other judges and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases,  making predictability of legal interpretation difficult.
Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia.
Additionally, traditional tribal law and custom remain significant. The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for its "ultra-puritanical judges", who are often harsh in their sentencing with beheading for the crime of witchcraft , but also sometimes overly lenient for cases of rape or wife-beating and slow, for example leaving thousands of abandoned women unable to secure a divorce.
Capital and physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts, such as beheading , stoning to death , amputation , crucifixion and lashing , as well as the sheer number of executions have been strongly criticized.
The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand, only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between and Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death.
Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas , are practised: Even after allowing women to drive and work, public places in Saudi Arabia are still gender-segregated and the kingdom has very strict laws on how unrelated men and women can dine together.
In September , a man was arrested by the Saudi authorities for appearing in a video with his female colleague while having breakfast at a hotel, where they both work.
Western-based organizations such as Amnesty International , Human Rights Watch and Freedom House condemn both the Saudi criminal justice system and its severe punishments.
There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities. Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess.
At trial, there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense.
Most trials are held in secret. Saudi Arabia is widely accused of having one of the worst human rights records in the world.
Human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women see Women below , capital punishment for homosexuality ,  religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police see Religion below.
To date, the activities of the NSHR have been limited and doubts remain over its neutrality and independence. In response to the continuing criticism of its human rights record, the Saudi government points to the special Islamic character of the country, and asserts that this justifies a different social and political order.
For example, Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr was arrested in when he was 17 years old for taking part in an anti-government protests in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring.
In , the government deported thousands of non-Saudis, many of them who were working illegally in the country or had overstayed their visas.
Many reports abound, of foreigner workers being tortured either by employers or others. Saudi Arabia has a "Counter-Radicalization Program" the purpose of which is to "combat the spread and appeal of extremist ideologies among the general populous sic " and to "instill the true values of the Islamic faith , such as tolerance and moderation.
According to Turkish government sources there is audio and video evidence for him having been murdered and dismembered inside the consulate. Since , as a founding member of OPEC , its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies.
However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam.
The relations with the U. Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide.
In the Arab and Muslim worlds, Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro-Western and pro-American,  and it is certainly a long-term ally of the United States.
China and Saudi Arabia are major allies, with relationship between the two countries growing significantly in recent decades.
Majority of Saudi Arabians also expressed a favorable view of China. The consequences of the invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran 's influence in the region.
In order to protect the house of Khalifa, the monarchs of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia invaded Bahrain by sending military troops to quell the uprising of Bahraini people on 14 March According to the Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki in March , Saudi Arabia along with Qatar provided political, financial and media support to terrorists against the Iraqi government.
On 25 March , Saudi Arabia, spearheading a coalition of Sunni Muslim states,  started a military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh , who was deposed in the Arab Spring uprisings.
Saudi Arabia, together with Qatar and Turkey , openly supported the Army of Conquest ,  an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly included an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al-Sham.
Following a number of incidents during the Hajj season, the deadliest  of which killed at least 2, pilgrim  in Mina stampede , Saudi Arabia has been accused of mismanagement and focusing on increasing money revenues while neglecting pilgrims' welfare.
In March , Sweden scrapped an arms deal with Saudi Arabia, marking an end to a decade-old defense agreement with the kingdom. The decision came after Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstrom was blocked by the Saudis while speaking about democracy and women's rights at the Arab League in Cairo.
This also led to Saudi Arabia recalling its ambassador to Sweden. Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating influence in the Arab—Israeli conflict , periodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and condemning Hezbollah.
In August both countries appeared to be exploring ways of ending the rift. In , Saudi Arabia imposed a land, naval and air blockade on Qatar.
Tensions have escalated between the Saudi and its allies after the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi from the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
Turkish officials are highly skeptical of Khashoggi being murdered inside the consulate; this has strained the already suffering Saudi Arabia—Turkey relations.
The relations have the potential of evolving into a crisis at any moment. Theresa May backed the US call to end the coalition.
In the armed forces had the following personnel: The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan , it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future.
Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation.
The late prince Sultan, former Minister of Defense and Aviation, was one of the so-called 'Sudairi Seven' and controlled the remainder of the armed forces until his death in Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain.
The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces. The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since Major imports in —14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK, 38 combat helicopters from the USA, 4 tanker aircraft from Spain and over armoured vehicles from Canada.
Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the UK, combat aircraft from the USA and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada.
Because the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates and Oman are not precisely marked, the exact size of the country is undefined.
Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert , associated semi-desert and shrubland see satellite image and several mountain ranges and highlands.
The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment.
Except for the southwestern province of Asir , Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with very high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night.
Annual rainfall is extremely low. The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons , usually occurring between October and March.
Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard ,   wolf , striped hyena , mongoose , baboon , hare , sand cat , and jerboa.
Animals such as gazelles, oryx , leopards and cheetahs  were relatively numerous until the 19th century, when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction.
Birds include falcons which are caught and trained for hunting , eagles, hawks, vultures, sandgrouse , and bulbuls.
There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous. Saudi Arabia is home to a rich marine life.
The Red Sea in particular is a rich and diverse ecosystem. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders such as the Blue Hole Red Sea at Dahab.
These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls.
Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic i. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse , Arabian camel , sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc.
Reflecting the country's dominant desert conditions, Saudi Arabia's plant life mostly consists of herbs, plants and shrubs that require little water.
The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widespread. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions  Arabic: The regions are further divided into governorates Arabic: This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities Arabic: The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates Arabic: As of October , Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world.
Saudi Arabia is considered an " energy superpower ". Saudi Arabia officially has about billion barrels 4.
In the s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth.
From — "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized.
According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities.
Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in , the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom.
The government has also made an attempt at " Saudizing " the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.
Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since Among its plans were to launch "economic cities" e. King Abdullah Economic City to be completed by , in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs.
As of [update] four cities were planned. In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a significant gold mining sector in the ancient Mahd adh Dhahab region and significant other mineral industries, an agricultural sector especially in the southwest but not only based on vegetables, fruits, dates etc.
Statistics on poverty in the kingdom are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue any. In December , the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube.
Source close to Bloomberg claimed the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia will receive additional cash after two years of major new investments.
Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners.
The rate of local unemployment is at its peak in more than a decade, with According to a report published by Bloomberg Economics in , the government needs to produce , jobs by to meet its unemployment rate.
Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the s. The government launched an extensive program to promote modern farming technology; to establish rural roads, irrigation networks and storage and export facilities; and to encourage agricultural research and training institutions.
As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs.
The country exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world.
Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. In addition, Saudi farmers grow substantial amounts of other grains such as barley, sorghum and millet.
As of , in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended. The Kingdom likewise has some of the most modern and largest dairy farms in the Middle East.
Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1, gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. The local dairy manufacturing company Almarai is the largest vertically integrated dairy company in the Middle East.
The Kingdom's most dramatic agricultural accomplishment, noted worldwide, was its rapid transformation from importer to exporter of wheat. In , the country built its first grain silos.
By , it had become self-sufficient in wheat. Shortly thereafter, Saudi Arabia began exporting wheat to some thirty countries, including China and the former Soviet Union, and in the major producing areas of Tabuk, Hail and Qasim, average yields reached 3.
The Kingdom has, however, stepped up fruit and vegetable production, by improving both agricultural techniques and the roads that link farmers with urban consumers.
Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes.
At Jizan in the country's well-watered southwest, the Al-Hikmah Research Station is producing tropical fruits including pineapples, paw-paws, bananas, mangoes and guavas.
The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. In the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world.
The farm covers hectares and has 5 million olive trees. The Guinness World Records also took into consideration their production capacity of tonnes of high quality of olive oil, while the kingdom consumes double that.
The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka , a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history.
Sakaka dates back more than 4, years. Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four fifths of the total groundwater reserves by Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination , water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades.
Given the substantial oil wealth , water is provided almost for free. Despite improvements service quality remains poor.
For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2. Since , the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants.
Since , the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well.
Although most tourism in Saudi Arabia still largely involves religious pilgrimages, there is growth in the leisure tourism sector. According to the World Bank , approximately Starting December , the kingdom will offer an electronic visa for foreign visitors to attend sport events and concerts.
The old city of Jeddah. A farm in Al-Qassim Province. Faifa mountains in Jizan Province. Snowy mountains in Tabuk Province.
The population of Saudi Arabia as of July is estimated to be As late as , most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but in the last half of the 20th century the kingdom has urbanized rapidly.
Its population is also quite young with over half the population under 25 years old. As recently as the early s, Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at , The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic.
The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic about 6 million speakers  , Najdi Arabic about 8 million speakers  , and Gulf Arabic about 0.
Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community. The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog , , Rohingya , , Urdu , , and Egyptian Arabic , Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim  officially, all are , and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim.
Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam , are systematically suppressed. According to estimates there are about 1,, Christians in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers.
The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,  as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam apostasy and punishes it by death.
There may be a significant fraction of atheists and agnostics in Saudi Arabia,   although they are officially called "terrorists".
In its religious freedom report, the U. Foreign Muslims  who have resided in the kingdom for ten years may apply for Saudi citizenship. Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,  and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.
As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for " Saudization " the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country.
Various Human Rights entities have criticised Saudi Arabia's handling of the issue. Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization.
This culture has been heavily influenced by the austerely puritanical Wahhabi form of Islam, which arose in the eighteenth century and now predominates in the country.
Wahhabi Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture. Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims.
Proponents call the movement " Salafism ",  and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions.
More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have " religious police " known as Haia or Mutaween , who patrol the streets " enjoining good and forbidding wrong " by enforcing dress codes , strict separation of men and women , attendance at prayer salat five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia Islamic law.
In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex.
Until , the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar , not the international Gregorian calendar ,  but in the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.
Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Businesses are closed three or four times a day  for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray.
As of [update] approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. In contrast, assigned readings over twelve years of primary and secondary schooling devoted to covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world comes to a total of about 40 pages.
Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events.
Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal,  and as of [update] the distribution of "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam" such as Bibles , was reportedly punishable by death.
Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk' idolatry , and the most significant historic Muslim sites in Mecca and Medina are located in the western Saudi region of Hejaz.
In June , the Council of Ministers approved a law that gives the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage the means to protect Saudi Arabia's ancient relics and historic sites.
Within the framework of the National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision , the kingdom allocated million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage.
Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab the Islamic principle of modesty , especially in dress. The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate.
Traditionally, men usually wear a white ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton known as a thawb , with a keffiyeh a large checkered square of cotton held in place by an agal or a ghutra a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by an agal worn on the head.
For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel -hair cloak bisht over the top. In public women are required to wear a black abaya or other black clothing that covers everything under the neck with the exception of their hands and feet, although most women cover their head in respect for their religion.
This requirement applies to non-Muslim women too and failure to abide can result in police action, particularly in more conservative areas of the country.
Women's clothes are often decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. During the s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms.
From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching.
In addition, Sunni Islamic prohibition of creating representations of people have limited the visual arts, which tend to be dominated by geometric , floral , and abstract designs and by calligraphy.
With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes.
Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively.
Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world—albeit generating official hostility in their home country.
Football is the national sport in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Arabia national football team is considered as one of Asia's most successful national teams, having reached a joint record 6 AFC Asian Cup finals, winning three of those finals , , and and having qualified for the World Cup four consecutive times ever since debuting at the tournament.
Scuba diving , windsurfing , sailing and basketball which is played by both men and women are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the Asian Championship.
A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in , is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region.
Falconry , another traditional pursuit, is still practiced. Women's sport is controversial due to the suppression of female participation in sport by conservative Islamic religious authorities  , however this restriction has eased slightly in recent years.
Segregated seating, allowing women to enter, has been developed in three stadiums across major cities. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food.
Islamic dietary laws are enforced: Flat, unleavened taboon bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates , fresh fruit, yoghurt and hummus.
Coffee, served in the Arabic style , is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia.
Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies.
Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian" wali ,  As of , a woman was required to have permission from her male guardian in order to travel, study, or work.
The order however also stated that it should only be allowed if it doesn't contradict the Sharia system. According to a leading Saudi feminist and journalist, Wajeha al-Huwaider , "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them, because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone.
Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law.
The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,  with child marriage no longer common.
Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until , were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home.
The religious police , known as the mutawa , impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia.
Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police , female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz , the son of the late King Fahad , are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code.
A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California  and Dr.
On 25 September , King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote and to be candidates in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission.
In August , a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. In April , bin Salman announced a project to build one of the world's largest cultural, sports and entertainment cities in Al Qidiya, southwest of Riyadh.
The square kilometre city will include a safari and a Six Flags theme park. As of February , Saudi women can now open their own business, without a male's permission.
In March a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits.
In April the first public cinema opened in Saudi Arabia after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2, screens running by In June , King Salman issued a decree allowing women to drive , lifting the world's only ban on women drivers.
Other domestic reforms include significant regulations restricting the powers of the religious police and establishing a national entertainment authority that has hosted comedy shows, pro wrestling events, and monster truck rallies.
Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce.
Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools.
A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track.
The rate of literacy is Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since Institutions of higher education include the country's first university, King Saud University founded in , the Islamic University at Medina founded in , and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine.
Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions. The Academic Ranking of World Universities , known as Shanghai Ranking, ranked 4 of Saudi Arabian institutions among its — list of the top universities in the world.
According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis  and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment.
Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qur'an, its interpretation and understanding Tafsir and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum.
Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction.
The religious sector of the Saudi national curriculum was examined in a report by Freedom House which concluded that "the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the 'unbeliever', that is, Christians, Jews, Shiites, Sufis, Sunni Muslims who do not follow Wahhabi doctrine, Hindus , atheists and others".
This radical teaching takes place in Saudi funded mosques and madrasas across the Islamic world from Morocco to Pakistan to Indonesia.
According to the educational plan for secondary high school education — Hijri , students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer.
The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism , leading to reform efforts. It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training.
As of , Saudi Arabia ranks 28 worldwide in terms of high-quality research output according to the renowned scientific journal Nature.
Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see KSA disambiguation. Saudi Arabian Saudi informal.
History of Saudi Arabia. Ottoman era in the history of Saudi Arabia. Unification of Saudi Arabia. Modern history of Saudi Arabia.
Politics of Saudi Arabia. Legal system of Saudi Arabia. Human rights in Saudi Arabia. Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia. Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia.
The Arabian oryx are found in the deserts and are endangered animals. The Arabian horse is native to Arabia, and an important element of traditional Arabian folklore.
The highly endangered Arabian leopard. Red Sea coral and marine fish. Largest cities or towns in Saudi Arabia Data. Economy of Saudi Arabia. Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia.
Tourism in Saudi Arabia. The Rub' al Khali desert. Snowy mountains, Tabuk Province. Volcano Madina Saudi Arabia. One of the many extinct volcanoes in Hejaz.
Saudi Arabian people and Demographics of Saudi Arabia. Religion in Saudi Arabia. Culture of Saudi Arabia. Education in Saudi Arabia.
Health care in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia portal Asia portal. The Consultative Assembly exists to advise the king. The royal embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington, D.
Archived from the original on 17 April Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allah. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Trump's questionable friend in the Middle East".
Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 9 May United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 September Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World.
A Most Masculine State: Gender, Politics and Religion in Saudi Arabia. Oil Discovered in Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 27 November A Brief History of Saudi Arabia.
Soldatkin, Vladimir; Astrasheuskaya, Nastassia 9 November Retrieved 4 January Saudi Arabia's Anxious Autocrats". Retrieved 5 October The Economist Intelligence Unit.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original PDF on 4 January Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 18 March The United States and the Great Powers.
The Crisis of Islam. The Ceaseless Quest for Security. The Modern Middle East: The heritage of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Retrieved 1 May The first hominin Colonization of Eurasia. Retrieved 13 November John, Henzell 11 March Retrieved 12 November Science Magazine - David Grimm.
Retrieved 18 June Baker Publishing Group; 15 November The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press; 7 June A New Perspective - p.
Cedar Fort; 9 August The Rise of Islam. The changing map of Asia. The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies.
Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: Sacred space and holy war: Retrieved 27 September The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World p. How Trade Shaped the World.
Muddle of the Middle East, Volume 2. The Future of Islam in the Middle East. Gold 6 April "Reining in Riyadh".
Library of Congress Country Studies. The Arab Revolt — Lawrence Sets Arabia Ablaze. Politics in an Arabian Oasis: The Rashidis of Saudi Arabia.
Anderson; William Bayne Fisher In much of Islam, a women's face is not considered awrah. In Saudi Arabia and some other Arab states, all of the body is considered awrah except the hands and eyes.
Accordingly, most women are expected to wear the hijab head covering , a full black cloak called an abaya, and a face-veil called niqab.
Many historians and Islamic scholars argue that the Quran was interpreted to require the veil as part of adapting it to tribal traditions.
Saudi Arabia is home to the largest mass of sand  on earth, known as the Rub-al Khali desert Rub-al Khali means "empty quarter".
The temperature is very hot. There are almost no rivers or lakes in the country. There are many wadis. The countries of Yemen and Oman are south of Saudi Arabia.
All of these countries, except Jordan and Iraq, make the Arabian Peninsula. Animal life includes wolves , hyenas , mongooses , baboons , hares , sand rats , and jerboas.
There used to be many larger animals such as gazelles , oryx , and leopards. By the s hunting from motor vehicles made these animals almost extinct.
Birds include falcons which are caught and trained for hunting , eagles, hawks, vultures, sand grouse and bulbuls.
There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous, and numerous types of lizards. There is a wide variety of marine life in the Persian Gulf.
Domesticated animals include camels, sheep, goats, donkeys, and chickens. There are a few small areas of grass and trees in southern Asir.
The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widespread. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces. These are the largest cities in Saudi Arabia.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Arabic word " Allah " literally translates as the God , as the prefix "Al-" is the definite article.
The royal embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington, D. Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allah. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 10 November Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, London.
Retrieved 1 May World and Its Peoples: Encyclopedia of world constitutions, Volume 1. Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World.
Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 22 August Find more about Saudi Arabia at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Countries and territories of Asia. Includes territory in both Europe and Asia. Usually thought of Europe for cultural , political and historical reasons.
Retrieved from " https:Oktober , abgerufen am Während die nördlichen Landschaften, wie die des Hedschas , eher eine Gebirgs- und Hügelkette entlang der Küste bilden, wird das südlicher gelegene Asir ähnlich dem Jemen durch den über weite Strecken mehr als tausend Meter hohen Randabbruch geprägt. Kommentatoren halten daher eines Tages einen religiös motivierten Staatsstreich durch fundamentalistische Geistliche für denkbar. Damit begann auch der Aufstieg seines Lieblingssohnes Mohammed. SIPRI, abgerufen am 5. Dies zeigt sich in fast allen Bereichen des gesellschaftlichen Lebens, etwa auch im Kalender. Es warf seine gesamte Reservekapazität auf den Markt, um den Verlust irakischer und kuwaitischer Produktion auszugleichen, und stabilisierte so die Märkte. In Jahresbericht weist Amnesty International darauf hin, dass besonders im Krieg gegen den Terror das Völkerrecht mehrmals missachtet wurde. Es gibt keine Wehrpflicht , die Streitkräfte sind eine reine Berufsarmee , das Mindestalter für den Eintritt beträgt achtzehn Jahre. Jahrhundert eine Expansion in den Bereich des Fruchtbaren Halbmonds , wodurch vitale Teile des Osmanischen Reichs unmittelbar bedroht wurden. Längerfristig setzt die Regierung auch auf Kernenergie , zu den Bodenschätzen gehört nämlich auch uranhaltiges Erz. Es ist gut, dass der Bundespräsident an einem 9.