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It is commonly played by four players with some three-player variations found in South Korea , Japan and Southeast Asia.
The game and its regional variants are widely played throughout Eastern and South Eastern Asia and have become popular in Western countries too.
The game has also been adapted into a widespread online entertainment. The game is played with a set of tiles based on Chinese characters and symbols , although some regional variations may omit some tiles or add unique tiles.
In most variations, each player begins by receiving 13 tiles. In turn players draw and discard tiles until they complete a legal hand using the 14th drawn tile to form 4 melds or sets and a pair eye.
A player can also win with a small class of special hands. There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, how a piece is robbed from another player, the use of simples numbered tiles and honors winds and dragons , the kinds of melds allowed, how to deal the tiles and the order of play.
Despite these similarities, there are many regional variations to the rules including rather different scoring systems, criteria for legal winning hands and even private table rules which distinguish some variations as notably different styles of mahjong.
It is said that the clacking of tiles during shuffling resembles the chattering of sparrows. It has also been suggested that the name came from an evolution of an earlier card game called Ma-Tiao which mahjong is supposedly roughly adapted from.
There are many highly varied versions of mahjong both in rules and tiles used. For these reasons Hong Kong mahjong is a suitable variation for the introduction of game rules and play and is the focus of this article.
Old Hong Kong Mahjong is played with a standard set of Mahjong tiles though cards may be used. Sets often include counters to keep score , dice to decide how to deal and a marker to show who the dealer is and which round is being played.
A set of Mahjong tiles usually has at least tiles most commonly ; however, sets originating from the United States or Southeast Asia will probably have more.
Mahjong tiles are split into 3 categories: Suits, Honors, and Bonuses. There are 3 suits of simples and in each suit the tiles are numbered from 1 to 9.
There are 4 identical copies of each simples tile totaling simples tiles. The bamboo suit is also known as "sticks" or "bams" suit; the first tile usually has a bird traditionally, a peacock or sparrow instead of a single bamboo.
The dots suit is also known as the "wheels", "balls", or "coins" suit. The characters suit is also known as the "cracks" or "numbers" suit since the top character is the Chinese number, and the bottom character is the Chinese number "ten thousand".
There are two different sets of Honors tiles: In Mahjong, East not North is the beginning. The Dragons are Red, Green and White. The white dragon has a blue or black frame on the face of the piece or in some sets is entirely blank.
These tiles have no numerical sequence like the simples for example the bamboo pieces number 1 to 9. Like the simples, there are four identical copies of each Honors tile, for a total of 28 Honors tiles.
There are two sets of Bonus tiles: The flower and season tiles play a unique role in the mechanics of the game. When drawn, the Bonus tile is not added into a player's hand but are instead set aside and kept near the player's other tiles for scoring purposes should they win the hand, and an extra tile is drawn in replacement of the Bonus tile.
In addition, unlike the Simple and Honors tiles, there is only a single tile of each Bonus tile, so there are a total of four flower and four season tiles in the set.
The tiles have a different artistic rendering of a specific type of flower or season. It is not necessary to know the names or the Chinese characters of each bonus tile, only the number, as this is associated with a specific direction, and the player receives bonus points when the Bonus tile matches the seat direction.
There is no relation between the bonus tile "bamboo" flower and the bamboo suit of simple tiles ex. In traditional Chinese culture, the Four Gentlemen are the plum winter , orchid spring , bamboo summer , and chrysanthemum autumn which are regarded as the representative plants of those seasons.
The dealer is chosen by various means. For example, each player throws dice with the highest count taking the dealer position, second highest taking south etc.
Or one player may place one tile of each wind face down and shuffle them. Each player randomly select one of these tiles and these tiles dictate their wind position.
Each player sits down at their respective position called the wind position at the table in positions of an inverted compass: East is dealer, the right of the dealer is South, across is West and the left is North.
The order of play is traditionally counter-clockwise. A match consists of four rounds, each representing a "prevailing wind," starting with East.
Once the first round is completed, a second round begins with South as the prevailing wind, and so on. Wind position is significant in that it affects the scoring of the game.
A Mahjong set with Winds in play will usually include a separate prevailing wind marker typically a die marked with the Wind characters in a holder.
In each round at least four hands are played, with each player taking the position of dealer. In the first hand of each round, Player 1 winner of the dice toss is East and therefore dealer.
In the second hand, Player 2 takes the East position, shifting the seat winds amongst the players counterclockwise though players do not physically move their chairs.
This continues until all four players have been East dealer. A marker is used to mark which player is East and often the round number. In sets with racks, a rack may be marked differently to denote the dealer.
Whenever a player in the East position dealer wins a hand, or if there is no winner a draw or "goulash hand" , an extra hand is played with the same seating positions and prevailing wind as in the previous hand.
This means that a match may potentially have no limit to the number of hands played though some players will set a limit of three consecutive hands allowed with the same seat positions and prevailing wind.
All tiles are placed face down on the table and are shuffled. By convention all players should participate in shuffling using both hands moving the pieces around the table rigorously and loudly for a lengthy period.
Tiles may get flipped up during this process and players should flip them facing down as soon as possible to avoid identifying the location of the revealed tiles.
Each player then stacks a row of 18 tiles, two tiles high in front of them for a total of 36 tiles. Players then push each side of their stack together to form a square wall.
Regular players usually place their stacks in a slightly diagonal position about 20 to 30 degrees anti-clockwise ; the right end of their stack is pushed slightly further in to the centre of the table to meet almost the middle of the stack of the player on the right.
This creates a smaller square wall the length of about half of each stack, with walls extended away from each corner of the square.
The diagonally positioned stacks and a smaller square creates a bigger space for players' tiles and also makes an ergonomic position for drawing tiles from the stack.
The dealer throws three dice in the square wall and sums up the total. Counting anti-clockwise so that the dealer is 1 or 5, 9, 13, 17 , so that south player to the right is 2 or 6, 10, 14, 18 , etc.
Some house rules may use only two dice but have double throws to increase randomness. In the case of double throws, the player of the chosen wall makes the second throw.
Using the same total on the dice or the total of the two throws , the player whose wall is chosen then counts the stacks of tiles from right to left.
For double throws, the count may extend to the left side player's stack. This determines the location where the 'deck' of tiles is cut.
Starting from the left of the stacks counted, the dealer draws four tiles for himself, and players in anti-clockwise order draw blocks of four tiles until all players have 12 tiles, so that the stacks decrease clockwise.
Each player then draws one last tile to make a tile hand. Dealing does not have to be strictly this way and may be done quite differently based on house rules.
Tiles may flip over when being dealt and players should agree in advance on how to deal with the problem. Each player now sets aside any Flowers or Seasons they may have drawn and takes turns to draw replacement piece s from the wall in the anti-clockwise direction.
If a player gets any Flowers or Seasons tiles in the replacement draw, the players must wait for the next turn to draw replacement tiles.
The dealer draws a piece from the wall in clockwise direction, adding it to their hand. Typically, this draw is performed during the initial deal to speed up play.
If this does not complete a legal hand, the dealer then discards a piece throwing it into the middle of the wall with no particular order in mind.
Each player in turn, in anti-clockwise direction, draws a tile from the wall; as long as the tile drawn is not one of the Bonus tiles, the player proceeds to discard a tile either the tile just drawn, or a tile in the hand to maintain a hand of The discarded tile is thrown into the centre and, if desired, the player announces out loud what the piece is.
The other players have an opportunity to seize the discarded tile; if no one takes it, the turn continues to the next player.
Play continues this way until one player has a legal winning hand and calls out "Mahjong" while revealing their hand. During play, each player's hand should always be 13 tiles meaning in each turn a tile must be picked up and another discarded.
The count of 13 tiles do not include any Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons , which are set to the side, nor does it include the fourth added piece of a Kong.
If a player is seen to have fewer or more than 13 tiles in their hand outside of their turn they are penalised. A winning hand consists of 14 tiles.
Since players always have 13 tiles in their hand during play, they must win by either drawing a piece from the wall that completes a tile hand "winning from the wall" or claiming a discard from another player which completes a tile hand "winning by discard".
The winning hand is made of four melds a specific pattern of three pieces and the eyes a pair of identical pieces. The exceptions to this rule are the special hands listed below.
Most players play with a table minimum, meaning a winning hand must score a minimum number of points which can be seen in the scoring section.
In Hong Kong Mahjong the most common point set is three but can be higher or lower depending on house rules. Melds are groups of tiles within the player's hand, consisting of either a Pong three identical tiles , a Kong four identical tiles , a Chow three Simple tiles all of the same suit, in numerical sequence , or Eyes two identical tiles needed in a winning hand.
Melds may be formed by drawing a tile from the wall, or by seizing another player's discard. There are rules governing which player has priority for a discard, and whether the meld should be exposed displayed to all players or remain concealed, depending on the manner in which the meld is formed.
You may form a Pong with any Simple or Honours tile. Bonus tiles Flowers or Seasons cannot be used to form a Pong because they are set aside and there are not three identical bonus tiles in the set.
The tiles must be identical you cannot mix suits. A Pong may either be concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing another player's discard.
Consider a Kong the same as a Pong with an additional tile to make a complete set of four. There are three ways to form a Kong. Whenever a Kong is formed, that player must draw an extra tile from the end of the wall and then discard a tile.
The fourth piece of a Kong is not considered as one of the 13 tiles a player must always have in their hand. The meld must be in absolute numerical sequence and all in the same suit.
Players cannot skip numbers or meld from the 8 or 9 to 1 or 2. Honours tiles cannot be used to make Chows because they have no numerical value, and Bonus tiles Flowers and Seasons also cannot be used to make a Chow.
A player can steal a discard to form a Chow only from the player whose turn was immediately before theirs; however, a player forming a Chow from a seized piece has the lowest priority for that tile.
Any other player that needs that tile to make a Pong, make a Kong, or to win may seize that piece instead. Like the Pong, the Chow is either concealed formed by drawing tiles or exposed formed by seizing the prior player's discard.
Whenever a player draws a flower or season, it is announced and then placed to the side it is not considered a part of the tile hand, but in the event that player wins, he or she will earn a bonus point for them and the last tile of the wall is drawn as a replacement tile so that the player has the 14 pieces needed before their discard.
This may happen successively in a player's turn. When a player discards a tile, other players may steal the tile to complete a meld.
Stealing tiles has both advantages quickly forming a winning hand and scoring extra points and disadvantages being forced to reveal part of one's hand to other players and not being able to change the meld once declared.
When a meld Pong , Kong or Chow is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and expose the meld by place the three or four tiles face up.
The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. If the player who melds a discard is not directly after the discarder in order of play , one or two players will essentially miss their turn as play continues anti-clockwise from the player who declared the meld.
If multiple players call for a discarded tile, priority for the discard depends on the declared action of the player stealing the discard. Going Mahjong is the act of declaring a winning hand, either by stealing a discard or by drawing a winning tile.
If at any point in the game a player can use another player's discard to complete a legal hand and with the agreed minimum points , they yell out 'Mahjong!
This ends the hand, and scoring commences. If more than one player can use a discard to go mahjong win the hand there are two ways to resolve the issue depending on agreed table rules: Either the players count the points they would win with the discard and the winner is the one with the higher score, or the winner is simply the player closest to the discarder in order of turn.
Alternatively, a player may also win by drawing a tile that completes a legal hand. This is called "winning from the wall". In Hong Kong mahjong, winning from the wall doubles the number of base points each loser must pay.
A rarely occurring and high-scoring feature of Hong Kong Mahjong is a move called robbing the Kong. If a player declares a Kong either by melding it or adding a fourth piece to a Pong to form a Kong or declaring a concealed Kong but another player can use that piece to complete a hand, the completing player takes priority to go Mahjong win the hand and may steal that piece from the player who intended to declare the Kong.
By logic, since there are only four identical copies of each Simple and Honours tile in a complete set, if two separate players are looking to form a Pong with that tile, they each have two of the same tile, and no free tiles remain in the wall to make a Pong.
Below are two examples of winning hands. A winning hand must consist of four melds Pongs, Kongs, or Chows and a pair eyes and must also score the agreed table minimum.
Hand formed with four Pongs and the eyes pair of East wind. Only bamboo is used no other simples , scoring extra points clean hand.
A high scoring hand formed using only circles, known as a pure hand. Hand is made of Chows, Pongs and the eyes of circles.
Most players include table variations in their games, of which some non-standard are included. The hands of seven different pairs and 13 orphans are examples which do not have four melds and the eyes.
They are described in more detail below. The player may forfeit points to the other players. Another potential penalty is the player who called out the false mahjong must play the rest of the hand with their tiles face up on the table so other players can see them open hand.
If the dealer wins the hand, they will remain the dealer and an extra hand is played in addition to the minimum 16 hands in a match. An extra hand is also played if there is no winner.
When there is no winner it is known as a "goulash hand". Master Qwan's Majong is the classic matching game. Your goal is to clear the playing area of tiles by matching pairs before time runs out.
This is a different style of mahjongg, where you need to match two tiles by connecting them with a pathway. Mahjong Tower is a puzzle game based on a classic Chinese majong game.
The objective is to remove all the tiles from the board. Another twist to the classic Mah Jongg puzzle game. Match pieces to ultimately remove all of them.
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